Tuesday, December 3, 2013

Journey through Slavery prt 3 - Brotherly Love

 Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, Query 14, 1781-1782 (excerpt)
        In Virginia and Maryland  slavery became what nurtured these states to wealth. In 1808 the Constitution brought slave trade to an end with the prohibition of it. The Blacks used the Declaration of Independence to claim their place in America and to justify their revolution. They used Jefferson's quote "all men are created equal" and "life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness" to gain freedom. Jefferson though it was profoundly wrong to hold others as property but he as most Virginians were unable to refuse free labor. The  idea was also black inferiority- blacks and whites could not live as equals. Jefferson found excuses to why he said one thing but practiced another. One excuse was blacks were biological inferior and similar to children, needed to be cared for because they could not care for themselves.
Benjamin Rush Yellow Fever

Richard Allen joined the patriot forces in 1786 in Philadelphia, he was a Methodist preacher. He bought himself out of slavery and was part of evangelical revolution, believed in a sense of equality for all in the eyes of God. Allen, with the help of enlisted members of white men helped build an African church. He extremely supported the ideas of working, learning, and studying to get rid of slavery. Allen with other blacks attended church until they were evicted for mistakenly sitting in a reserved area they helped build. In 1793 the deaths during summer skyrocketed: children and people were left to die in the streets. The people in charge of law and order run away because of the deaths.
Benjamin Rush signer of declaration of independence was a friend of black community and helped Allen when soliciting funds for black church. The myth blacks were unable to contract yellow fever helped to serve as healers. In the end both races continued to die until November. Blacks tried to earn a place in American society but were villianized. Allen raised enough funds to found the Bethal House of God.

 Letter from Harriet Jacobs to Ednah Dow Cheney
Slave marriages varied from elaborated weddings to something as simple to jumping a broom stick. When married by a white pastor phrases were omitted because weddings were not secure. With Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin and  75% of cotton derived from the South, slavery was more important than ever. With Westward expansion no family was safe from separation. With childbirth came love and pain because mothers knew they would always be slaves. Slavery was a dreadful oppressive relationship where men, women, and children lived their lives with human frailty.

A Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Charles Ball 
Laws passed to keep slaves under tighter watch. Gabriel led a revolt after being accused of pig stealing and biting a white man in 1799. He was a blacksmith and created weapons and devised a meticulous plan. He massacred whites except Methodist and led to black freedom born out of white fear. His plot was betrayed by two slaves and he faced trial in October 6, 1800. Jessie Torry knew a man who would sleep afraid of death by a black man. Haiti empowered slave rebellion, in 1791 freed slave overturned plantation economy. In 1801 slave condition went back then outlawed slavery. Napoleon sought Jefferson's help to reinforce slavery in Haiti, Jefferson agreed. Napoleon then sold territory because wasn't able to use Haiti for North American interest. Maryland and Virginia faced a slave decline which equaled not enough work.

In the North an antislavery movement arose. An act prohibiting importation of slaves of 1807 did not allow importation of slaves across the Atlantic. This strengthened slavery scarcity of slavery which lead to trade of North and South. Slavery vanished in the North caused a market for surplus of slaves. Jefferson wanted women sold with children. Charles Ball wanted to see his family told to get another wife in Georgia after being sold.
Charles Ball 

In 1793, 10,000 blacks in Philadelphia. Churches served to unit blacks. In April 11, 1816 the  episcopal church served political and economic organization focal point for free black communities. From 1805-1814 bills to ban slavery in Pennsylvania were being spread. American colonization society, James Monroe and Andrew Jackson supported the relocation of blacks to Africa, specifically Sierra Léon.
Negro Plot: An Account of the Late Intended Insurrection among a Portion of the Blacks of the City of Charleston, South Carolina

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